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Title: Manual of Gardening (Second Edition)

Author: L. H. Bailey

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MANUAL OF GARDENING

A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO THE MAKING OF HOME GROUNDS AND THE GROWING

OF FLOWERS, FRUITS, AND VEGETABLES FOR HOME USE

BY

L. H. BAILEY

SECOND EDITION

1910






EXPLANATION

It has been my desire to reconstruct the two books, "Garden-Making" and "Practical Garden-Book"; but inasmuch as these books have found a constituency in their present form, it has seemed best to let them stand as they are and to continue their publication as long as the demand maintains itself, and to prepare a new work on gardening. This new work I now offer as "A Manual of Gardening." It is a combination and revision of the main parts of the other two books, together with much new material and the results of the experience of ten added years.

A book of this kind cannot be drawn wholly from one's own practice, unless it is designed to have a very restricted and local application. Many of the best suggestions in such a book will have come from correspondents, questioners, and those who enjoy talking about gardens; and my situation has been such that these communications have come to me freely. I have always tried, however, to test all such suggestions by experience and to make them my own before offering them to my reader. I must express my special obligation to those persons who collaborated in the preparation of the other two books, and whose contributions have been freely used in this one: to C.E. Hunn, a gardener of long experience; Professor Ernest Walker, reared as a commercial florist; Professor L.R. Taft and Professor F.A. Waugh, well known for their studies and writings in horticultural subjects.

In making this book, I have had constantly in mind the home-maker himself or herself rather than the professional gardener. It is of the greatest importance that we attach many persons to the land; and I am convinced that an interest in gardening will naturally take the place of many desires that are much more difficult to gratify, and that lie beyond the reach of the average man or woman.

It has been my good fortune to have seen amateur and commercial gardening in all parts of the United States, and I have tried to express something of this generality in the book; yet my experience, as well as that of my original collaborators, is of the northeastern states, and the book is therefore necessarily written from this region as a base. One gardening book cannot be made to apply in its practice in all parts of the United States and Canada unless its instructions are so general as to be practically useless; but the principles and points of view may have wider application. While I have tried to give only the soundest and most tested advice, I cannot hope to have escaped errors and shortcomings, and I shall be grateful to my reader if he will advise me of mistakes or faults that he may discover. I shall expect to use such information in the making of subsequent editions.

Of course an author cannot hold himself responsible for failures that his reader may suffer. The statements in a book of this kind are in the nature of advice, and it may or it may not apply in particular conditions, and the success or failure is the result mostly of the judgment and carefulness of the operator. I hope that no reader of a gardening book will ever conceive the idea that reading a book and following it literally will make him a gardener. He must always assume his own risks, and this will be the first step in his personal progress.

I should explain that the botanical nomenclature of this book is that of the "Cyclopedia of American Horticulture," unless otherwise stated. The exceptions are the "trade names," or those used by nurserymen and seedsmen in the sale of their stock.

I should further explain the reason for omitting ligatures and using such words as peony, spirea, dracena, cobea. As technical Latin formularies, the compounds must of course be retained, as in Pæonia officinalis, Spiræa Thunbergi, Dracæna fragrans, Cobœa scandens; but as Anglicized words of common speech it is time to follow the custom of general literature, in which the combinations æ and œ have disappeared. This simplification was begun in the "Cyclopedia of American Horticulture" and has been continued in other writings.

L. H. BAILEY.

ITHACA, NEW YORK, January 20, 1910.






CONTENTS

CHAPTER I

THE POINT OF VIEW
What a garden is


CHAPTER II

THE GENERAL PLAN OR THEORY OF THE PLACE
   The plan of the grounds
   The picture in the landscape
   Birds; and cats
   The planting is part of the design or picture
   The flower-growing should be part of the design
   Defects in flower-growing
   Lawn flower-beds
   Flower-borders
   The old-fashioned garden
   Contents of the flower-borders
   The value of plants may lie in foliage and form rather than in bloom
   Odd and formal trees
   Poplars and the like
   Plant-forms
   Various specific examples
   An example
   Another example
   A third example
   A small back yard
   A city lot
   General remarks
   Review


CHAPTER III

EXECUTION OF SOME OF THE LANDSCAPE FEATURES
   The grading
   The terrace
   The bounding lines
   Walks and drives
   The question of drainage, curbing, and gutters
   The materials
   Making the borders
   Making the lawn
     Preparing the ground
     The kind of grass
     When and how to sow the seed
     Securing a firm sod
     The mowing
     Fall treatment
     Spring treatment
     Watering lawns
     Sodding the lawn
     A combination of sodding and seeding
     Sowing with sod
     Other ground covers


CHAPTER IV

THE HANDLING OF THE LAND
   The draining of the land
   Trenching and subsoiling
   Preparation of the surface
   The saving of moisture
   Hand tools for weeding and subsequent tillage and other hand work
     The hoe
     Scarifiers
     Hand-weeders
     Trowels and their kind
     Rollers
     Markers
   Enriching the land


CHAPTER V

THE HANDLING OF THE PLANTS
  Sowing the seeds
  Propagating by cuttings
     Dormant stem-cuttings
     Cuttings of roots
     Green cuttings
     Cuttings of leaves
     General treatment
  Transplanting young seedlings
  Transplanting established plants and trees
     Tub-plants
     When to transplant
     Depth to transplant
     Making the rows straight
     Cutting-back; filling
     Removing very large trees
   Winter protection of plants
   Pruning
   Tree surgery and protection
      Tree guards
      Mice and rabbits
      Girdled trees
      Repairing street trees
  The grafting of plants
  Keeping records of the plantation
  The storing of fruits and vegetables
  The forcing of plants
     Coldframes
     Hotbeds
     Management of hotbeds
  

CHAPTER VI

PROTECTING PLANTS FROM THINGS THAT PREY ON THEM
  Screens and covers
  Fumigating
  Soaking tubers and seeds
  Spraying
  Insecticide spraying formulas
  Fungicide spraying formulas
  Treatment for some of the common insects
  Treatment for some of the common plant diseases

CHAPTER VII

THE GROWING OF THE ORNAMENTAL PLANTS--THE CLASSES OF PLANTS, AND LISTS
  Planting for immediate effect
  The use of "foliage" trees and shrubs
  Windbreaks and screens
  The making of hedges
  The borders
  The flower-beds
     Bedding effects
     Plants for subtropical effects
  Aquatic and bog plants
  Rockeries and alpine plants

  1. PLANTS FOR CARPET-BEDS
  Lists for carpet-beds
  
  2. THE ANNUAL PLANTS
  List of annuals by color of flowers
  Useful annuals for edgings of beds and walks, and for
  ribbon-beds

  Annuals that continue to bloom after frost
  List of annuals suitable for bedding (that is, for "mass-effects" of color)
  List of annuals by height
  Distances for planting annuals
  
  3. HARDY HERBACEOUS PERENNIALS
  Perennial herbs suitable for lawn and "planting" effects
  A brief seasonal flower-garden or border list of herbaceous perennials
  One hundred extra-hardy perennial herbs
  
  4. BULBS AND TUBERS
  Fall-planted bulbs
  List of outdoor fall-planted bulbs for the North
  Winter bulbs
  Summer bulbs
  
  5. THE SHRUBBERY
  List of shrubbery plants for the North
  Shrubs for the South
  
  6. CLIMBING PLANTS
  Annual herbaceous climbers
  Perennial herbaceous climbers
  Woody perennial climbers
  Climbing roses
  
  7. TREES FOR LAWNS AND STREETS
  List of hardy deciduous trees for the North
  Non-coniferous trees for the South
  
  8. CONIFEROUS EVERGREEN SHRUBS AND TREES
  List of shrubby conifers
  Arboreous conifers
  Conifers for the South
  
  9. WINDOW-GARDENS
  The window-box for outside effect
  The inside window-garden, or "house plants"
  Bulbs in the window-garden
  Watering house plants
  Hanging baskets
  Aquarium
  

CHAPTER VIII

THE GROWING OF THE ORNAMENTAL PLANTS--INSTRUCTIONS OF PARTICULAR KINDS
   Abutilons;
   agapanthus;
   alstremeria;
   amaryllis;
   anemone;
   aralia;
   araucaria;
   auricula;
   azaleas;
   begonias;
   cactus;
   caladium;
   calceolaria;
   calla;
   camellias;
   cannas;
   carnations;
   century plants;
   chrysanthemums;
   cineraria;
   clematis;
   coleus;
   crocus;
   croton;
   cyclamen;
   dahlia;
   ferns;
   freesia;
   fuchsia;
   geranium;
   gladiolus;
   gloxinia;
   grevillea;
   hollyhocks;
   hyacinths;
   iris; lily;
   lily-of-the-valley;
   mignonette;
   moon-flowers;
   narcissus;
   oleander;
   oxalis;
   palms;
   pandanus;
   pansy;
   pelargonium;
   peony;
   phlox;
   primulas;
   rhododendrons;
   rose;
   smilax;
   stocks;
   sweet pea;
   swainsona;
   tuberose;
   tulips;
   violet;
   wax plant.

CHAPTER IX

THE GROWING OF THE FRUIT PLANTS
  Dwarf fruit-trees
  Age and size of trees
  Pruning
  Thinning the fruit
  Washing and scrubbing the trees
  Gathering and keeping fruit
     Almond;
     apples;
     apricot;
     blackberry;
     cherry;
     cranberry;
     currant;
     dewberry;
     fig;
     gooseberry;
     grape;
     mulberry;
     nuts;
     orange;
     peach;
     pear;
     plum;
     quince;
     raspberry;
     strawberry;
  

CHAPTER X

THE GROWING OF THE VEGETABLE PLANTS
  Vegetables for six
  The classes of vegetables
  The culture of the leading vegetables
     Asparagus;
     artichoke;
     artichoke;
     Jerusalem;
     bean;
     beet;
     broccoli;
     brussels sprouts;
     cabbage;
     carrot;
     cauliflower;
     celeriac;
     celery;
     chard;
     chicory;
     chervil;
     chives;
     collards;
     corn salad;
     corn;
     cress;
     cucumber;
     dandelion;
     egg-plant;
     endive;
     garlic;
     horseradish;
     kale;
     kohlrabi;
     leek;
     lettuce;
     mushroom;
     mustard;
     muskmelon;
     okra;
     onion;
     parsley;
     parsnip;
     pea;
     pepper;
     potato;
     radish;
     rhubarb;
     salsify;
     sea-kale;
     sorrel;
     spearmint;
     spinach;
     squash;
     sweet-potato;
     tomato;
     turnips and rutabagas;
     watermelon.
  

CHAPTER XI

SEASONAL REMINDERS For the North For the South

INDEX



LIST OF PLATES

PLATE

I. The open center.

II. The plan of the place.

III. Open-center treatment in a semi-tropical country.

IV. Subtropical bedding against a building. Caladiums, cannas, abutilons, permanent rhododendrons, and other large stuff, with tuberous begonias and balsams between.

V. A subtropical bed. Center of cannas, with border of Pennisetum longistylum (a grass) started in late February or early March.

VI. A tree that gives character to a place.

VII. Bedding with palms. If a bricked-up pit is made about the porch, pot palms may be plunged in it in spring and tub conifers in winter; and fall bulbs in tin cans (so that the receptacles will not split with frost) may be plunged among the evergreens.

VIII. A well-planted entrance. Common trees and bushes, with Boston ivy. on the post, and Berberis Thunbergii in front.

IX. A rocky bank covered with permanent informal planting.

X. A shallow lawn pond, containing water-lilies, variegated sweet flag, iris, and subtropical bedding at the rear; fountain covered with parrot's feather (Myriophyllum proserpinacoides).

XI. A back yard with summer house, and gardens beyond.

XII. A back yard with heavy flower-garden planting.

XIII. The pageant of summer. Gardens of C.W. Dowdeswell, England, from a painting by Miss Parsons.

XIV. Virginia creeper screen, on an old fence, with wall-flowers and hollyhocks in front.

XV. Scuppernong grape, the arbor vine of the South. This plate shows the noted scuppernongs on Roanoke Island, of which the origin is unknown, but which were of great size more than one hundred years ago.

XVI. A flower-garden of China asters, with border of one of the dusty millers (Centaurea).

XVII. The peony. One of the most steadfast of garden flowers.

XVIII. Cornflower or bachelor's button. Centaurea Cyanus.

XIX. Pyracantha in fruit. One of the best ornamental-fruited plants for the middle and milder latitudes.

XX. A simple but effective window-box, containing geraniums, petunias, verbenas, heliotrope, and vines.

XXI. The king of fruits. Newtown as grown in the Pacific country.

XXII. Wall-training of a pear tree.

XXIII. Cherry currant.

XXIV. Golden Bantam sweet corn.

XXV. The garden radish, grown in fall, of the usual spring sorts.









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